Man is quite familiar with the subject considered in this verse. The history of mankind is replete with literature dealing with the human passion. In fact history is the outcome of such passions. ʿAql, we have been shown in verse 10, may fall a prey to ‘obstruction.’ Verse 11 has already dealt with the state of man when caprice is permitted to ride roughshod over ʿaql. The author considers the perils of haughtiness, tyranny or a dominating influence, in so far as they affect the ʿaql of man.

Pride by itself is not an undesirable or unworthy attribute. It is good and bad depending on how ʿaql is stimulated by it. Arrogance in man (i.e. pride degenerated to haughtiness), the pride of power in a tyrant (i.e. power degenerated into tyranny), the vanity of authority in a dictator (i.e. authority degenerated into domination) are instances of deleterious stimulation of ʿaql by the influences referred to here. Man should ever be on the guard to see that these calamities are avoided.